Computer Basics

What is Computer? Basics of computer for everyone

Computer is an Electronic device in which we can store, access, calculate, manipulate, analyse, arrange, manage large amount of data and information with high speed and accuracy.

Computer is a machine that helps users to solve their daily life problems quickly. It is a wondrous instrument used by billions of people around the world. Almost 90% private and government office use computer for their daily official work.

The meaning of computer in Hindi is संगणक. The word computer is derived from the Latin language word “Compute” which mean count, score, tally reckon. In Hindi compute mean गणना करना! The first calculating machine or devices is “Abacus” mostly used by China and with low frequency in other countries till today. The model of abacus you saw in old school slate. That was the only way to do or understand plus and minus. The first electric computer was ENIAC which mean General purpose programmable electronic computer. Charles Babbage is known for Father of computer who introduced the concept of programmable computers. The Indian Statistical Institute of Calcutta introduced first computer in India in 1955.

Parts of Computer

Computer is divided in two parts software and hardware. Learn below in details.

1. Software

Software is a part of computer in which can see but can’t touch. Software is group of programs. A program is group of functions and classes. A function is a group instruction that received by computer. Computer performs action according the user commands (instructions). There are various software such as windows 10, Microsoft office, adobe Photoshop etc.

There are two types of software: System software and Application software: Learn below in details.

1. System Software – as an operating system such as windows 10, (Android in mobile is also operating system). That is used to operate hardware components and application software. The operating system provide platform to users to install application software.

Such as in human body, soul is our operating system which operates our body and provides use option to learn, think, and implement ideas and creativity. If we’re reading it’s because of the eyes and eyes are operated by Soul and it is connected with brain. Similarly operating system is connected with CPU (Central Process Unit). But soul doesn’t know about English so your English knowledge is your application software that you studied or native after soul. If there is no operating system in computer then there is nothing you can do on the computer.

There are two types of Operating system

  • GUI – Which mean graphical user interface such as Windows operating system, Mac OS etc. in which we can use mouse, graphical Interface (pictures, icons, drives, folders, backgrounds colour variations etc.)
  • CUI – Command user interface, such as Dos (disk operating system). No graphical interface only black, white and blue screen. NO icons, folder known as Directories etc.

2. Application Software:- Application software is like tools, elements and usable programs that you can install in computers. Application software is used by users but we can install after the installation of operating system. And also application software is installed on computer based on prior recommendations such as storage capacity, Ram and graphics of computers. Application software such as MS office, Tally, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Typing software, antivirus etc.

Similarly in human application are our skills, knowledge, degree etc. and we can only use it when there is soul or operating system in our body.

2. Hardware

Hardware is a part of computer in which can see and touch. Hardware is a physical component of computer. Such as keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, hard disk drive etc.

In other words we can understand the parts of computer by human example. Such as our body is hardware. Ear, eyes, hands are hardware of our body. And inside our body that we call soul is our software. We can touch our arms and other physical components of body but we can’t touch our soul but we can feel. This is similar in computer.

Computer operations: Computer performs various actions as I mentioned above that computer store data, calculate, manipulate, and manage all kind of data and information with high speed and accuracy. Computer is used to store data and information. Data and information is everything that you see in computer such as songs, videos, notes, images, software, games, websites all are data and information. We can access our saved and created data various times of day and year.

Basic Computer skills: Computer skills are very essential in almost all kind of official works. Official works such a creation of new document, letters, forms, chart, graph, animation, presentation, reports etc. There are various types of software that we use to perform various actions.

Such as Microsoft Office 2016 or older versions is used to perform official works. For graphic designing and web designing work we use adobe Photoshop, Corel draw, Adobe illustrator etc.  in computer. For financial calculation we use Tally ERP and similar software.

Uses of Computer in various field

More than thousands uses of computer read here: uses of computer in our daily life.  But the uses of computer in every field and for everyone are different. Such as the use of computer in government office is different than the use of computer at home. The use of computer is different for small kids and computer professional. Many people use computer to play songs and watch movies and others using computer to earn money.

The use of computer is depending on the knowledge and computer literacy level of users. If user know the benefits of computer then they use according to that.

In this world 99% official works and non –official works are done by computer. Computer is helpful in business, great educational tool for students and very powerful when connected with internet. Computer is most important device that everyone should use.

How computer works

Computer process raw data as input and gives results based on raw data. If you ask a question about why we use computer? Then the simple answers are: We use computer to process data into meaningful information. You can also say that computer is used to covert meaningless data into meaningful information. Here you can learn about how computer works? And how you can understand computers?

Types of computer

We can define computer types on the basis of functionality in three types:

  1. Digital Computer: – Digital computer that convert meaningless data into meaningful information. Digital computer performs mathematical and logical operations. Digital computer works based on Binary Language or bits. Bit is the smallest unit of computer. 0, 1 are binary digits. 1 mean on and 0 mean off. All kind of input and output is regulated by memory in computer. When you press K in computer, computers don’t understand it is K, computer understands only 01001011. These 8 bits are equal to 1 byte. If you type only K in notepad and save it then the notepad file take 1 byte memory to save and process.1 space is also consume and process 1 byte of memory of computer. Bytes is data storage and process unit in computer: here are the example of memory unit:

8 Bits = 1 Byte

1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

1024 KB = 1 Megabyte

1024 MB = 1 Gigabyte

1024 GB = 1 Terabyte

1024 TB = 1 Petabyte

1024 PB = 1 Exabyte

1024 EB = 1 Zettabyte

1024 ZB = 1 Yottabyte

1024 YB = 1 Brontobyte

1024 BB = 1 Geopbyte

Etc. This is the way computer Primary and secondary memory works. If 1 song takes 7.22 MB space in pen drive then you can calculate easily how many songs 1 TB pen drive can save. If you’re seeing the size of song 7.22 MB then, this song also use 7.22 MB Ram and Hard Disk in Computer while playing.

Binary PC at home is digital computer. Pc mean personal computer. Digital computers are most commonly used computer in offices, homes. Laptop, PC or Desktop computers are digital computer. And any class of digital devices those are used to solve problems by process data and information.

There are 4 types of Digital Computer

  1. Micro Computer: – Desktop Computer, PC, Laptops, Tablet, PDA, Mobile.
  2. Mini Computer: – Data Base Management Devices, general purpose works can be used by Banks or big companies.
  3. Mainframe Computer: – Higher capacity to process input and output, storage requirements. Used by Internet services provider such as BSNL. Market Leader is IBM, IBM stand for International Business Machine. IBM is also the first computer seller.
  4. Supercomputer: – Used for Scientific works. Used in Satellite management, Space stations management etc. by NASA and ISRO. Also used for Security purposes. And the India first super computer is PARAM 8000 that was built in 1991.
  1. Analog Computer: – an Analog computer works according to the situation and time change. It means analog computers continuously change their output based on changeable inputs. Analog computer process signals into pre-defined rules. Such as car speed meter, weight calculator machine, temperature machine etc. Most analog computers don’t depend on user instruction to give output. They work automatically. Where digital computer required commands to process data and information. Analog computers are easy to use and don’t require to create any programs. Analog computers work according the mathematical models. Analog computer does not store data and information. Not able to play songs and games. It’s all hardware. Analog computers are used in mechanical engineering, electric engineering etc. and all kind of scientific works.  Such as Car speed meter show the results based on how much accelerator or gas is pressed by driver. Where thermometer show the results based on body temperature.  Another example of analog computer in Cars that is when car fuel is going down or decreasing car give you notification or signal that fuel is low. Also car door is opened or remained open then it will also play beep that give signal to driver about the physical conditions of the vehicle.
  2. Hybrid Computer: – Hybrid computer is a combination of digital computer and analog computer. Hybrid computer works on the both methods logical and mathematical. In hybrid computer we can process data into information. Also we can process signal into numbers. Such as digital thermometer. Similar in HD TV box or digital cable box where HD Box convert Analog signal into digital. In future more computers will be manufactured on the basis of hybrid. Such as Robots.   In future robotic computer give results based on signal coming from user or based on situation. Hybrid computer will work according to the situation. Today, almost all computer work without IQ. IQ is only thing that separate humans from computers. Else 99% works human do, can be done by computer. Today, digital computer can’t find and open umbrella in open space in rains. I mean they don’t know if they are dusty and they can’t clean and repair themselves. But in future they will do all these things. Another example is driver less car. Work on digital and analog technologies. Driver less car read and scan the signal from road (special integrated tape in the road) and drive accordingly. Even they can control and store all the data, photos, animals those are coming the roads. And in the same time you can watch them at home. Even I can imagine that in future you can drive your car sitting at home it is possible only if the innovation is continue in hybrid computers. There are various hybrid computers such as tablet. I can’t say that hybrid computer is totally different it’s just the combination of digital and analog technologies. Today, the pc contains Hybrid technologies. For example if you insert pen drive into USB port then you see in desktop that if will play automatically. When battery is down in computer it will show and inform you. This is what I think! I can be wrong but I think accordingly.

We can also understand computer types based on human examples. Some humans are digital they only work according the commands. If I will give you the commands that search on Google about artificial intelligence then you go and search. This is digital human. Where if you automatically realise to know about the artificial intelligence you can go and search. You don’t need my commands or guidance. This is Analog human similarly analog computer. In hybrid human or hybrid computer you listened what I said and then you analyse and realised the importance of knowledge about artificial intelligence then you searched. This is hybrid computer.

 The computer invention formula is simple:

  1. Received Input -> Processed -> Output e.g. maine kisi ko kaha paani ke botal dena – usne suna aur paani ki botal de diya. This is how digital computer works.
  2. Placement– Processing – Output e.g. Maine bola nahi lekin mere mein ek meter laga hai, usne mere samane wale ko signal diya, ki bhai pyas lagi hai aur itni lagi hai. This is how analog computer works.
  3. Input – Placement – Processing – Output  e. g. maine kisi ko kaha paani pina thaa, usne muzhe dekha aur anubhav kiya (based on analog signal) aur yeh mesure kiya ki and aur job hi paani pene layak thaa , unti quantity kaa pani wo le aayea. This is how hybrid computer works.

In the end I can say that hybrid computer is more intelligent than analog computer and digital computer. And all kind of robotic inventions will be based on hybrid technology and methods.

Computer knowledge is important for everyone living on this planet such as kids, youth and professional and everyone. It should be used in every sector and help to solve our daily life problems faster and accurately. Here you can learn more about Importance of computer education in schools for students.

As I was saying computer give us output based on user inputs. So, let’s understand what is Input and Output devices:-

What is Computer input and output devices

Here is the block diagram of computer that can help you understand the user operations.

Block diagram of computer - Computer basics

Input Devices

Which device we use to give instruction to computer is called input device. In other words anyhow activities that computer swung into output is called input. Anyhow activities is input, swung into action is output.

You can say that – Keyboard per button press karna input hua, aur keyboard device hua, to hum kah sakte hai ki keyboard ek input device hai. App yeh bhi kah sakte hai ki computer ko jab hum kuch karne ka nirdehs dete hai to use input kaha jata hai, aur jis chiz ke istamaal se dete hai use device kaha jata hai.

There are various input devices that commonly used by computer users around the world such as:


List of input devices

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Light pen
  • Scanner
  • Joystick
  • MIC
  • Web Camera
  • Barcode Reader
  • Touch pad
  • Touch screen
  • Track ball
  • OCR
  • MICR


Output Devices

Which devices that give us results based on inputs is called output devices. You can also say that ki Computer ko Diye huye nirdesho kaa jo parinaam dikhaye use output device kahte hai. For example if you double click on computer icon on desktop it will open and show storage devises (Hard disk drivers and DVD RW or Pen Drive). So double click is input, mouse is device it is input device and you see results (displaying hard disk drivers) that is output and you’re seeing this in Monitor. So, it is output device. Another example: You’re reading this article or information it is input to your brain and your actions after reading or during reading this article about computer is output.

List of Output Devices:

  • Monitor (Three types of computer monitor: CRT stand for cathode ray tube, LCD (Liquid Crystal display and LED (light emitting diode).
  • Printer
  • Projector
  • Speaker
  • Head phone
  • etc

Both input and output devices:

  • Modems
  • Network Cards
  • Touch Screen


Characteristics and features of computers

Computer is loaded with powerful physical components and it wondrous devices everyone is crazy to use. But what make computer so much useful and beneficial let’s understand:

  1. Speed: Speed matter the most in daily life and official activities. Computer helps to process billion of calculations in millisecond. Such Auto sum option in Microsoft Excel that can sum those 1048575 mathematical operations within millisecond.  Without computer, it will take more than 1 month for common people to calculate such biggest amount of data.
  2. Accuracy: While 1 human being can take 1 month to sum 1048575 figure and after that it is not guarantee that all calculation is correct. But you can rely on computer for its accuracy. 23+23=46 always, not doubt. Because it is programmed before performance. Almost all software’s are tested for bugs before we launch it to general public to buy. A logic can be wrong but computer no nothing if + mean to combine two numbers into 1 then it will do, if it is programmed that + mean to multiply then it will do the same. So, if computer perform and incorrect or correct operation is depend on user but computer is also accurate even in the time of mistake.
  3. Diligence: – Computer can keep working until the power is not off. A computer eats and drinks electricity and internet. Nothing else. Computers even don’t need rest and they don’t feel tired or unproductive. They can keep working without any excuse. Yes, physical components can give problem after the working limit is crossed. While if computer is heat up then it will shut down. Or when the inputs are more than its capacity to handle then it is hanging. Else you can keep working on computer. So, diligence is what mostly required in business operations.
  4. Versatility: – Computer is universal devices. The versatility of computer is one the most important characteristics. In early days of computer it is used by only big companies, in militaries and scientific works but today we can say everyone is using computer based on the purposes and intentions. People using for business, some using for designing, other using for writing and thousands other works.
  5. Storage Capacity:- Computer is better data and information storage device then paper. Even many companies not use paper. Such as cashless economy or internet banking is another innovation that is operated by computers. We can store billion types of data and information in computers and in various internal and external storage devices such as Hard Disk Drive, Floppy Drive (not in use today), CD, DVD, Memory Card and Pen Drive. And today for data storage there is new invention is going on called cloud computing. In which is cloud storage is one of its feature. Such as Good drive, sky drive, drop box etc. Which you can use to store data and access it without taking care of any physical storage component.

So, such powerful features and characteristics replacing humans from work. Because human can’t store that amount of data, can’t speed that much and diligence and versatile. Human can create computers but can’t work like computers. But yes, the use of computers and internet is increasing day by day. Everyone one of us needs to understand or need to use computer and internet in daily life. There are various uses of Internet in our daily that can be beneficial for every human being.  We can do many things on the internet at office and home. Here you can also learn about productive things that you can do on the internet.

So, at the end of this post I am saying that computer use is very important for everyone. But on the internet everyone is describing about computer differently. But the common thing is that computer is greatest inventions of all the time. Computer is Magic stick if you use it properly and with intentions it will solve your maximum daily life and future problems.

This is what I think, what is computer! I

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