Computer Basics easy to understand for everyone


The computer is an Electronic device in which we can store, access, calculate, manipulate, analyze, arrange, and manage large amounts of data and information with high speed and accuracy.

A computer is a machine that helps users to solve their daily life problems quickly. It is a wondrous instrument used by billions of people around the world. Almost 90% of private and government offices use computers for their daily official work.

The meaning of computer in Hindi is संगणक. The word computer is derived from the Latin language word “Compute” which means count, score, tally reckon. In Hindi compute mean गणना करना!

The first calculating machine or device is the “Abacus” mostly used in China and with low frequency in other countries till today. The model of the abacus you saw in old school slate. Read more here: What is Computer? Introduction to Computer

That was the only way to do or understand plus and minus. The first electric computer was ENIAC which means a General purpose programmable electronic computer.

Charles Babbage is known as the Father of computers who introduced the concept of programmable computers. The Indian Statistical Institute of Calcutta introduced the first computer in India in 1955.

Parts of Computer

The computer is divided into two parts software and hardware. Learn below in detail.

1. Software

Software is a part of the computer which can see but can’t touch. Software is a group of programs. A program is a group of functions and classes. A function is a group instruction that is received by the computer.

A computer performs actions according to the user commands (instructions). There is various software such as windows 10, Microsoft Office, and Adobe Photoshop.

There are two types of software: System software and Application software: Learn below in detail.

1. System Software – as an operating system such as Windows 10,1 1 (Android on mobile is also an operating system). That is used to operate hardware components and application software. The operating system provides a platform for users to install application software.

Such as in the human body, the soul is our operating system that operates our body and provides useful options to learn, think, and implement ideas and creativity.

If we’re reading it’s because the eyes and eyes are operated by Soul and it is connected with the brain. Similarly, the operating system is connected to the CPU (Central Process Unit). But the soul doesn’t know about English so your English knowledge is the application software that you studied or native after soul.

If there is no operating system on the computer then there is nothing you can do for the computer.

There are two types of Operating system

  • GUI – This means a graphical user interface such as Windows operating system, Mac OS in which we can use a mouse, a graphical Interface (pictures, icons, drives, folders, backgrounds color variations)
  • CUI – Command user interface, such as Dos (disk operating system). No graphical interface only a black, white, and blue screen. NO icons, folders are known as Directories

2. Application Software:- Application software is like tools, elements, and usable programs that you can install on computers. Application software is used by users but we can install it after the installation of the operating system.

And also application software is installed on computers based on prior recommendations such as storage capacity, Ram, and graphics of computers. Application software such as MS Office, Tally, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Typing software, and antivirus.

Similarly in human application are our skills, knowledge, degree, etc. and we can only use them when there is a soul or operating system in our body.

2. Hardware

Hardware is a part of the computer which can see and touch. Hardware is a physical component of a computer. Such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, hard disk drive, etc.

In other words, we can understand the parts of the computer by human example. Such as our body is hardware. Ears, eyes, and hands are the hardware of our body. And inside our body which we call the soul is our software. We can touch our arms and other physical components of the body but we can’t touch our soul but we can feel. This is similar to a computer.

Computer operations: The computer performs various actions as I mentioned above the computer store data, calculate, manipulate, and manage all kind of data and information with high speed and accuracy.

The computer is used to store data and information. Data and information are everything that you see and process on a computer such as songs, videos, notes, images, software, games, programming, and websites all are data and information. We can access our saved and created data at various times of day and year.

Basic Computer skills: Computer skills are very essential in almost all kinds of official work. Official works such as the creation of new documents, letters, forms, charts, graphs, animation, presentations, reports etc. There are various types of software that we use to perform various actions.

Such as Microsoft Office 2019 or older versions are used to perform official works. For graphic designing and web designing work, we use adobe Photoshop, Corel draw, Adobe illustrator, etc. on a computer. For financial calculation, we use Tally ERP and similar software.

Read MoreLearn Basic fundamentals of computers, networking, and hardware

Uses of Computers in various fields

More than thousands of uses of computers read here: uses of computer in our daily life.  But the uses of computers in every field and for everyone are different. Such as the use of computers in a government office is different than the use of computers at home. The use of computers is different for small kids and computer professionals.

Many people use computers to play songs and watch movies and others use computers to earn money.

The use of computers is depending on the knowledge and computer literacy level of users. If users know the benefits of computers then they use them according to that.

In this world, 99% of official works and non–official works are done by computer. The computer is helpful in business, a great educational tool for students and very powerful when connected to the internet.

The computer is the most important device that everyone should use. Read More: Why Learn Basic Computer Skills?

How computer works

The computer process raw data as input and gives results based on raw data. If you ask a question about why we use computers? Then the simple answers are: We use computers to process data into meaningful information.

You can also say that computer is used to convert meaningless data into meaningful information. Here you can learn about how a computer works?

Types of computer

We can define computer types on the basis of functionality in three types:

  1. Digital Computer: – Digital computer that converts meaningless data into meaningful information. The digital computer performs mathematical and logical operations. Digital computer works based on Binary Language or bits. The bit is the smallest unit of a computer. 0, and 1 are binary digits. 1 mean on and 0 mean off. All kind of input and output is regulated by memory in the computer. When you press K on the computer, computers don’t understand it is K, the computer understands only 01001011. These 8 bits are equal to 1 byte. If you type only K in notepad and save it then the notepad file takes 1 byte of memory to save and process.1 space is also consumed and processes 1 byte of memory of the computer. Bytes is data storage and process unit in a computer: here is an example of a memory unit:

8 Bits = 1 Byte

1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

1024 KB = 1 Megabyte

1024 MB = 1 Gigabyte

1024 GB = 1 Terabyte

1024 TB = 1 Petabyte

1024 PB = 1 Exabyte

1024 EB = 1 Zettabyte

1024 ZB = 1 Yottabyte

1024 YB = 1 Brontobyte

1024 BB = 1 Geopbyte

Etc. This is the way computer Primary and secondary memory works. If 1 song takes up 7.22 MB of space in a pen drive then you can calculate easily how many songs a 1 TB pen drive can save. If you’re seeing the size of the song as 7.22 MB then, this song also uses a 7.22 MB Ram and Hard Disk in Computer while playing.

A binary PC at home is a digital computer. Pc means personal computer. Digital computers are the most commonly used computer in offices and homes. Laptops, PC or Desktop computers are digital computers. And any class of digital devices that are used to solve problems by processing data and information.

There are 4 types of Digital Computer

  1. Micro Computer: – Desktop Computer, PC, Laptops, Tablet, PDA, Mobile.
  2. Mini Computer: – Data Base Management Devices and general-purpose works can be used by Banks or big companies.
  3. Mainframe Computer: – The higher capacity to process input and output, storage requirements. Used by Internet service providers such as BSNL. The Market Leader is IBM, and IBM stands for International Business Machine. IBM is also the first computer seller.
  4. Supercomputer: – Used for Scientific works. Used in Satellite management, Space station management etc. by NASA and ISRO. Also used for Security purposes. And India’s first supercomputer is PARAM 8000 which was built in 1991.
  1. Analog Computer: – an Analog computer works according to the situation and time change. It means analog computers continuously change their output based on changeable inputs. Analog computers process signals into pre-defined rules. Such as car speed meter, weight calculator machine, temperature machine etc. Most analog computers don’t depend on user instruction to give output. They work automatically. Where digital computers required commands to process data and information. Analog computers are easy to use and don’t require creating any programs. Analog computers work according to mathematical models. Analog computer does not store data and information. Not able to play songs and games. It’s all hardware. Analog computers are used in mechanical engineering, electric engineering etc., and all kinds of scientific works.  As Car speed meter shows the results based on how much accelerator or gas is pressed by the driver. Whereas thermometers show the results based on body temperature.  Another example of an analog computer in Cars is when car fuel is going down or decreasing car gives you a notification or signal that fuel is low. Also, if the car door is opened or remained open then it will also play a beep that gives a signal to the driver about the physical conditions of the vehicle.
  2. Hybrid Computer: – Hybrid computer is a combination of a digital computer and an analog computer. The hybrid computer works in both methods logical and mathematical. In a hybrid computer, we can process data into information. Also, we can process signals into numbers. Such as a digital thermometer. Similar to an HD TV box or digital cable box where an HD Box converts Analog signal into digital. In the future, more computers will be manufactured on the basis of hybrid. Such as Robots.   In the future, robotic computers give results based on signals coming from users or based on situations. A hybrid computer will work according to the situation. Today, almost all computers work without IQ. IQ is the only thing that separates humans from computers. Else 99% of the work humans do, can be done by computer. Today, digital computers can’t find an open umbrella in open spaces it rains. I mean they don’t know if they are dusty and they can’t clean and repair themselves. But in the future, they will do all these things. Another example is driverless cars. Work on digital and analog technologies. The driverless car read and scans the signal from the road (special integrated tape on the road) and drives accordingly. Even they can control and store all the data, photos, and animals that are coming onto the roads. And at the same time, you can watch them at home. Even I can imagine that in the future you can drive your car sitting at home it is possible only if the innovation continues in hybrid computers. There are various hybrid computers such as tablets. I can’t say that a hybrid computer is totally different it’s just a combination of digital and analog technologies. Today, the pc contains Hybrid technologies. For example, if you insert a pen drive into the USB port then you see on the desktop that it will play automatically. When the battery is down in the computer it will show and inform you. This is what I think! I can be wrong but I think accordingly.

We can also understand computer types based on human examples. Some humans are digital they only work according to commands. If I will give you the commands that search on Google about artificial intelligence then you go and search. This is a digital human. Where if you automatically realize to know about artificial intelligence you can go and search. You don’t need my commands or guidance. This is an Analog human similarly analog computer. In hybrid human or hybrid computer, you listened to what I said and then you analyse and realized the importance of knowledge about artificial intelligence then you searched. This is a hybrid computer.

 The computer invention formula is simple:

  1. Received Input -> Processed -> Output e.g. maine kisi ko kaha paani ke botal dena – usne suna aur paani ki botal de diya. This is how digital computer works.
  2. Placement– Processing – Output e.g. Maine bola nahi lekin mere mein ek meter laga hai, usne mere samane wale ko signal diya, ki bhai pyas lagi hai aur itni lagi hai. This is how analog computer works.
  3. Input – Placement – Processing – Output  e. g. maine kisi ko kaha paani pina thaa, usne muzhe dekha aur anubhav kiya (based on analog signal) aur yeh mesure kiya ki and aur job hi paani pene layak thaa , unti quantity kaa pani wo le aayea. This is how a hybrid computer works.

In the end, I can say that a hybrid computer is more intelligent than an analog computer and a digital computer. And all kinds of robotic inventions will be based on hybrid technology and methods.

Computer knowledge is important for everyone living on this planet such as kids, youth and professionals and everyone. It should be used in every sector and help to solve our daily life problems faster and accurately. Here you can learn more about the Importance of computer education in schools for students.

As I was saying computers give us output based on user inputs. So, let’s understand what is Input and Output devices:-

What are Computer input and output devices?

Here is the block diagram of the computer that can help you understand the user operations.

Block diagram of computer - Computer basics

Input Devices

Which device we use to give instructions to the computer is called the input device. In other words, anyhow activities that the computer swung into output are called input. Anyhow activities are input, and swung into action is output.

You can say that – Keyboard per button press karna input hua, aur keyboard device hua, to hum kah sakte hai ki keyboard ek input device hai. App yeh bhi kah sakte hai ki computer ko jab hum kuch karne ka nirdehs dete hai to use input kaha jata hai, aur jis chiz ke istamaal se dete hai use device kaha jata hai.

There are various input devices that are commonly used by computer users around the world such as:

List of input devices

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Light pen
  • Scanner
  • Joystick
  • MIC
  • Web Camera
  • Barcode Reader
  • Touchpad
  • Touch screen
  • Trackball
  • OCR (Optical Character Reader)
  • MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader)


Output Devices

Which devices that give us results based on inputs are called output devices. You can also say that ki Computer ko Diye Huye nirdesho kaa jo parinaam dikhaye use output device kahte hai.

For example, if you double-click on the Computer icon on the desktop it will open and show storage devices (Hard disk drivers and DVD RW or Pen Drive). So double click is input, the mouse is the device it is an input device and you see results (displaying hard disk drivers) that is output and you’re seeing this in Monitor. So, it is an output device. Another example: You’re reading this article or the information it is input to your brain and your actions after reading or during reading this article about the computer is output.

List of Output Devices:

  • Monitor (Three types of computer monitors: CRT stands for cathode ray tube, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display and LED (light-emitting diode).
  • Printer
  • Projector
  • Speaker
  • Headphone
  • etc

Both input and output devices:

  • Modems
  • Network Cards
  • Touch Screen


Characteristics and features of computers

The computer is loaded with powerful physical components and wondrous devices everyone is crazy to use. But what makes the computer so much useful and beneficial let’s understand:

  1. Speed: Speed matter the most in daily life and official activities. The computer helps to process billions of calculations in milliseconds. Such an Auto sum option in Microsoft Excel can sum those 1048575 mathematical operations within milliseconds.  Without a computer, it will take more than 1 month for common people to calculate such a biggest amount of data.
  2. Accuracy: While 1 human being can take 1 month, sum up, 1048575 figure and after that, it is not guaranteed that all calculation is correct. But you can rely on a computer for its accuracy. 23+23=46 always, no doubt. Because it is programmed before the performance. Almost all software’s tested for bugs before we launch it to the general public to buy. Logic can be wrong but the computer no nothing if + means to combine two numbers into 1 then it will do it, if it is programmed that + means to multiply then it will do the same. So, if a computer performs an incorrect or correct operation it depends on the user but the computer is also accurate even in the time of mistake.
  3. Diligence: – The computer can keep working until the power is not off. A computer eats and drinks electricity and the internet. Nothing else. Computers even don’t need rest and they don’t feel tired or unproductive. They can keep working without any excuse. Yes, physical components can give problems after the working limit is crossed. While if the computer is heating up then it will shut down. Or when the inputs are more than its capacity to handle then it is hanging. Else you can keep working on the computer. So, diligence is mostly required in business operations.
  4. Versatility: – The computer is a universal device. The versatility of computers is one of the most important characteristics. In the early days of computers it is used by only big companies, militaries, and in scientific works but today we can say everyone is using computer-based for their purposes and intentions. People using for business, some using for designing, others using for writing, and thousands of other works.
  5. Storage Capacity:- Computer is better data and information storage device than paper. Even many companies do not use paper. Such as cashless economy or internet banking is another innovation that is operated by computers. We can store a billion types of data and information in computers and in various internal and external storage devices such as Hard Disk drives, Floppy drives (not in use today), CDs, DVDs, Memory Cards, and Pen drives. And today for data storage there is a new invention is going on called cloud computing. In which is cloud storage is one of its features. Such as Good drive, sky drive, dropbox etc. Which you can use to store data and access it without taking care of any physical storage component.

So, such powerful features and characteristics replace humans from work. Because humans can’t store that amount of data, can’t speed that much, and have diligence and versatility.

Humans can create computers but can’t work like computers. But yes, the use of computers and the internet is increasing day by day. Every one of us needs to understand or needs to use computers and the internet in daily life.

There are various uses of the Internet in our daily that can be beneficial for every human being.  We can do many things on the internet at the office and at home. Here you can also learn about productive things that you can do on the internet.

So, at the end of this post, I am saying that computer use is very important for everyone. But on the internet, everyone is describing computers differently. But the common thing is that the computer is the greatest invention of all time.

The computer is a Magical device if you use it properly and with intention, it will solve your maximum daily life and future problems. To learn more please visit Online Basic Computer Courses for beginners: Learn essential computer skills

This is what I think, what is a computer! I

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